Onderzoek naar voeding bij chronische ontstekingen en ziekten

Samenvatting resultaten en conclusies:

Een te lage LDL vergroot de kans op vroeger overlijden en meer kans op infecties. Een low-carb- en vetrijk dieet kan auto-immuunziektes verbeteren of zelfs helpen omkeren. Intermittent vasten is positief voor levensverwachting, immuunfunctie, gezondheid en verkleint de kans op ziekte.

Lage LDL vergroot kans op overlijden door infecties

Cholesterol heeft een beschermende werking bij infecties

Lage LDL cholestorol vergroot kans op overlijden bij sepsis


  • Cholesterol levels and long-term rates of community-acquired sepsis, 2016

Bron: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5180408

Low LDL-C was associated with higher long-terms rates of community-acquired sepsis. HDL-C level was not associated with long-term sepsis rates.


Hoger HDL werkt beschermend bij infecties


  • Effect of low high-density lipoprotein levels on mortality of septic patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies, 2020

Bron: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32076477

This meta-analysis did not reveal a significant association between lower HDL levels and an increase in the risk of sepsis, whereas it showed that lower HDL levels are associated with a higher mortality rate in septic adult patients. These findings suggest that HDL may be considered as a promising factor for the prevention and treatment of sepsis in the future.

Vetrijke diëten scoren significant beter dan vetarme diëten in vrijwel alle markers van metabolische gezondheid

Suikerarme diëten gezonder en effectiever dan vetarme diëten

Low Carb vs Low Fat: 31 onderzoeken met statistisch significante betere resultaten in de low-carb diëten

Voordelig effect van low-carb, vetrijk dieet op hart- en vaatziekten op basis van 12 gerandomiseerde onderzoeken met controlegroepen


  • The effects of low-carbohydrate diets on cardiovascular risk factors: A meta-analysis, 2020

Bron: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31935216

This meta-analysis confirms that low-carbohydrate diets have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk factors but that the long-term effects on cardiovascular risk factors require further research.



Onderzoeken naar low-carb vs low-fat diëten tonen consequent aan dat low-carb diëten effectiever zijn in gewichtsverlies en diverse metabolische kenmerken van gezondheid


Conclusion: There was more weight loss in the low carb group, and the difference was significant at 3 and 6 months, but not 12. The low carb group had greater improvements in blood triglycerides and HDL (good cholesterol), but other biomarkers were similar between groups.


Conclusion: Those who followed the low carb diet lost about three times more weight than those on the low fat diet. There was also a statistically significant difference in several biomarkers: Triglycerides fell by 38 mg/dL in the low carb group, compared with 7 mg/dL in the low fat group. Insulin sensitivity improved on the low carb diet, but it worsened slightly on the low fat diet. Fasting blood glucose levels fell by 26 mg/dL in the low carb group, but only by 5 mg/dL in the low fat group. Insulin levels dropped by 27% in the low carb group, but it rose slightly in the low fat group.


Conclusion: The low carb group lost 2.3 times as much weight and had significant decreases in triglyceride and non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol levels. Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) — or “bad” cholesterol — fell in the low fat group only.


Conclusion: The low carb group saw a greater decrease in triglycerides (43.6 mg/dL) than the low fat group (26.9 mg/dL). Both LDL (bad) and HDL (good) cholesterol decreased in the low fat group only.



Low-carb diëten effectiever dan high-carb en standaard/richtlijn-diëten bij diabetespatiënten

  • Low-carb mediterraan dieet effectiever dan standaard mediterraan dieet en officieel diabetes dieet in bloedsuikerspiegel-controle en HDL-waarden.

Bron: https://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/fulltext/S1550-4131(20)30238-2

CONCLUSIONS: An intensive 12-month dietary intervention in a community-based setting was effective in improving most modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in all the dietary groups. Only the LCM improved HDL levels and was superior to both the ADA and TM in improving glycaemic control.


We hebben dierlijke voeding nodig voor langdurige en optimale gezondheid

Dierlijke producten een essentieel onderdeel van ons voedingspatroon

De mens is de laatste 3 miljoen jaar geadapteerd om veel dierlijke producten te eten, zoals vlees en vis


  • Meat in the human diet: An anthropological perspective, 2017

Bron: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1747-0080.2007.00194.x

Table 1. Quantitative comparison of length and surface area of gastrointestinal tracts of some animals and humans
Species Intestinal length:
body length
Gastrointestinal surface area:
body surface area
Cattle 20:1 3.0:1
Horse 12:1 2.2:1
Baboon 8:1 1.1:1
Dog 6:1 0.6:1
Human 5:1 0.8:1
Cat 4:1 0.6:1


Key Points

  • We developed a larger brain balanced by a smaller, simpler gastrointestinal tract requiring higher‐quality foods based around meat protein and fat.
  • Anthropological evidence from cranio‐dental features and fossil stable isotope analysis indicates a growing reliance on meat consumption during human evolution.
  • Study of hunter‐gatherer societies in recent times shows an extreme reliance on hunted and fished animal foods for survival.
  • Optimal foraging theory shows that wild plant foods in general give an inadequate energy return for survival, whereas the top‐ranking food items for energy return are large hunted animals.
  • Numerous evolutionary adaptations in humans indicate high reliance on meat consumption, including poor taurine production, lack of ability to chain elongate plant fatty acids and the co‐evolution of parasites related to dietary meat.

The type of fat in modern diets is distinctly different from that eaten by our forebears. In particular, saturated fat and n‐6 PUFA (from seed oils and grains) have increased at the expense of omega‐3 fats from fish and red meat. The cardio‐protective effects of long‐chain omega‐3 fats and their preferential incorporation into the tissues of the body support the notion that modern diets are deficient in these nutrients.



Inverse correlatie met vleesconsumptie en hart- en vaatziekten en kanker in Azië


  • Meat intake and cause-specific mortality: a pooled analysis of Asian prospective cohort studies, 2013

Bron: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23902788

Ecological data indicate an increase in meat intake in Asian countries; however, our pooled analysis did not provide evidence of a higher risk of mortality for total meat intake and provided evidence of an inverse association with red meat, poultry, and fish/seafood. Red meat intake was inversely associated with CVD mortality in men and with cancer mortality in women in Asian countries.



Dierlijke producten, vet en cholesterol geassocieerd met significant kleiner risico op beroertes


  • Animal protein, animal fat, and cholesterol intakes and risk of cerebral infarction mortality in the adult health study, 2004

Bron: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15166397

A high intake of animal fat and cholesterol was significantly associated with a reduced risk of cerebral infarction death.



De langstlevende, tot op heden meest succesvolle mensachtige (H. erectus) was afhankelijk van de olifant als voedingsbron en vet als energiebron

  • Man the Fat Hunter: The Demise of Homo erectus and the Emergence of a New Hominin Lineage in the Middle Pleistocene (ca. 400 kyr) Levant

We employ a bio-energetic model to present a hypothesis that the disappearance of the elephants, which created a need to hunt an increased number of smaller and faster animals while maintaining an adequate fat content in the diet, was the evolutionary drive behind the emergence of the lighter, more agile, and cognitively capable hominins. Qesem Cave thus provides a rare opportunity to study the mechanisms that underlie the emergence of our post-erectus ancestors, the fat hunters.

Bron: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0028689


Hoge consumptie van groenten en fruit kan nadelig zijn

Verminderen van plantaardige voeding kan diverse gezondheidsklachten verbeteren

Verwijderen van vezels kan constipatie en geassocieerde klachten oplossen


  • Stopping or reducing dietary fiber intake reduces constipation and its associated symptoms, 2012

Bron: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3435786/

CONCLUSION: Idiopathic constipation and its associated symptoms can be effectively reduced by stopping or even lowering the intake of dietary fiber.



Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet protocol kan diverse chronische ziekten verbeteren door onder meer eliminatie van alle plantaardige voeding


  • Paleolithic ketogenic diet (PKD) in chronic diseases: Clinical and research data

Bron: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/4x24r436

Excerpt: Cancer patients who outperformed their diagnosis not just by being alive but also by being progression-free. Atemporary decrease in the PKD adherence in a patient with recurrent brain tumor,was associated with slight progression, while going back to strictly following the diet was associated with regression. Note that none of the patientsused radiotherapy and chemotherapy along with the diet therapy and only one patient had radiochemotherapy before starting the diet therapy


  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus successfully managed with the paleolithic ketogenic diet, 2014

Bron: http://www.ijcasereportsandimages.com/archive/2014/010-2014-ijcri/CR-10435-10-2014-clemens/ijcri-1043510201435-toth-full-text.php

We suggest that an intervention with the paleolithic ketogenic diet in an early stage of the disease with residual insulin secretion may halt or reverse type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Follow-up at sixth month in the case of our patient is relatively short and the positive results may appear as a honeymoon effect. However, this term is used in relation to the beginning of insulin therapy not the end of it. We believe that with normalized insulin secretion and a further adherence to the diet the patient may be managed on the long-term.


  • Crohn’s disease successfully treated with the paleolithic ketogenic diet, 2016

Bron: https://www.paleomedicina.com/en/crohns-disease-successfully-treated-with-the-paleolithic-ketogenic-diet



Medicatie en plantaardige olie als oorzaak van hart- en vaatziekten en diabetes


  • Medicines and Vegetable Oils as Hidden Causes of Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes, 2016 Perspective Review

Bron: https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/446704

The combination of a statin and CETP inhibitor significantly decreased LDL-C levels and significantly increased HDL-C levels, but this combination therapy was not effective in preventing CVD events and in fact increased all-cause mortality.



Salicylaat-arm dieet gunstig voor AERD (Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease)


  • A novel treatment adjunct for aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease: the low-salicylate diet: a multicenter randomized control crossover trial, 2016

Bron: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26751262

The low-salicylate diet may offer a novel treatment adjunct to the current management of AERD. Clinically and statistically significant improvements on both subjective and objective outcome measures were noted for the upper and lower respiratory tracts.



Geraffineerde, plantaardige transvetten geassocieerd met hart- en vaatziekte en diabetes – maar verzadigd vet niet, 2015 meta-analyse


  • Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

Bron: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26268692

Saturated fats are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke, or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogeneous with methodological limitations. Trans fats are associated with all cause mortality, total CHD, and CHD mortality, probably because of higher levels of intake of industrial trans fats than ruminant trans fats. Dietary guidelines must carefully consider the health effects of recommendations for alternative macronutrients to replace trans fats and saturated fats.



Consumptie van meer groenten en fruit leidt niet naar verbeterde weerstand of anti-oxidatie


  • Effects of High Consumption of Vegetables on Clinical, Immunological, and Antioxidant Markers in Subjects at Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases, 2018

Bron: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6196889/

The study provides additional evidence about the uncertainty of providing a clear evidence for vegetables in modulating markers of immune function and antioxidant status. Further studies, including also the evaluation of potential changes in the human gut microbiota [45], are need in order to unravel the mechanism of effect of vegetable consumption in cardiovascular prevention.


  • Effect of increasing fruit and vegetable intake by dietary intervention on nutritional biomarkers and attitudes to dietary change: a randomised trial, 2019

Bron: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317285289

While increasing fruit, juice and vegetable consumption increases circulating level of beneficial nutrients in healthy subjects, a 12-week intervention was not associated with effects on antioxidant status or lymphocyte DNA damage.



Hoge consumptie van groenten en fruit is geassocieerd met vroeger overlijden


  • Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause mortality: a dose-response analysis, 2013

FV consumption <5 servings/d is associated with progressively shorter survival and higher mortality rates. The Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01127698 and NCT01127711, respectively.


Intermittent vasten biedt langere levensduur en verminderde ziektekans, zoals kanker en obesitas

Therapeutisch effecten van vasten op het immuunsysteem en diabetes

Positieve effecten van vasten op metabolische gezondheid


  • Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Health, Aging, and Disease, 2019

Bron: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1905136

Evidence is accumulating that eating in a 6-hour period and fasting for 18 hours can trigger a metabolic switch from glucose-based to ketone-based energy, with increased stress resistance, increased longevity, and a decreased incidence of diseases, including cancer and obesity.


  • Impact of intermittent fasting on health and disease processes, 2017

Bron: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27810402

Abstract: Studies of IF (e.g., 60% energy restriction on 2days per week or every other day), PF (e.g., a 5day diet providing 750-1100kcal) and time-restricted feeding (TRF; limiting the daily period of food intake to 8h or less) in normal and overweight human subjects have demonstrated efficacy for weight loss and improvements in multiple health indicators including insulin resistance and reductions in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The cellular and molecular mechanisms by which IF improves health and counteracts disease processes involve activation of adaptive cellular stress response signaling pathways that enhance mitochondrial health, DNA repair and autophagy. PF also promotes stem cell-based regeneration as well as long-lasting metabolic effects.



Positieve effecten van vastenprotocollen op lichaamscompositie


  • Effects of intermittent fasting on body composition and clinical health markers in humans, 2015

Bron: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26374764

Alternate-day fasting trials of 3 to 12 weeks in duration appear to be effective at reducing body weight (≈3%-7%), body fat (≈3-5.5 kg), total cholesterol (≈10%-21%), and triglycerides (≈14%-42%) in normal-weight, overweight, and obese humans. Whole-day fasting trials lasting 12 to 24 weeks also reduce body weight (≈3%-9%) and body fat, and favorably improve blood lipids (≈5%-20% reduction in total cholesterol and ≈17%-50% reduction in triglycerides).


Een stabiele bloedsuikerspiegel is de controlerende factor bij infectie met SARS CoV-2 voor de mate van complicaties en sterfte

Bloedsuikerspiegel controle is essentieel bij COVID-19

Bloedsuikerspiegel controle is de belangrijkste risicofactor bij mensen met COVID-19 en diabetes type 2

  • Association of Blood Glucose Control and Outcomes in Patients with COVID-19 and Pre-existing Type 2 Diabetes

Bron: https://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/fulltext/S1550-4131(20)30238-2

“Considering that people with diabetes had much higher risk for death and various complications, and there are no specific drugs for COVID-19, our findings indicate that controlling blood glucose well may act as an effective auxiliary approach to improve the prognosis of patients with COVID-19 and pre-existing diabetes,”
Senior author Hongliang Li


Low-carb diëten effectiever dan high-carb en standaard/richtlijn-diëten bij diabetespatiënten

  • Low-carb mediterraan dieet effectiever dan standaard mediterraan dieet en officieel diabetes dieet in bloedsuikerspiegel-controle en HDL-waarden.

Bron: https://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/fulltext/S1550-4131(20)30238-2

CONCLUSIONS: An intensive 12-month dietary intervention in a community-based setting was effective in improving most modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in all the dietary groups. Only the LCM improved HDL levels and was superior to both the ADA and TM in improving glycaemic control.



Dieet met meer verzadigd vet vermindert totaal verzadigd vet in plasma.

  • Dietary carbohydrate restriction improves metabolic syndrome independent of weight loss

Bron: https://insight.jci.org/articles/view/128308

CONCLUSION. Consistent with the perspective that MetS is a pathologic state that manifests as dietary carbohydrate intolerance, these results show that compared with eucaloric high-carbohydrate intake, LC/high-fat diets benefit MetS independent of whole-body or fat mass.


In 9 dagen verbeteren verschillende markers van metaboolsyndroom met alleen fructosebeperking

  • Effects of Dietary Fructose Restriction on Liver Fat, De Novo Lipogenesis, and Insulin Kinetics in Children With Obesity

Bron: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28579536/

Conclusions: Short-term (9 days) isocaloric fructose restriction decreased liver fat, VAT, and DNL, and improved insulin kinetics in children with obesity. These findings support efforts to reduce sugar consumption.


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